When dealing with a given hazardous waste problem, often there is a need to utilise a combination of the four general approaches outlined above. The following types of wastes are commonly treated in hazardous waste incinerators:. Instead of purchasing and providing disposable tableware, encourage employees to bring their own reusable mugs, cups, plates and flatware, or supply reusable tableware and wash on-site. The above design of landfill site does not have any provision for monitoring and repair of the site. Often the industrial process can be altered in such a way that the use of raw materials is optimized and the amount of-hazardous waste is reduced to barest minimum.
Chapter STUDY. PLAY. The waste-handling strategy that utilizes a broad range of reduction techniques and disposal options is: integrated waste management. Disposal of biodegradable chemical waste by dispersal is called: land application.
How is leachate most commonly produced? An option for waste management that has the greatest negative impact on air quality is:. Disposing of biodegradable toxic waste by land application is a cheap and efficient method because:. Which of the following is the most significant effect of improper disposal of hazardous waste:. Why has Europe been more successful in recycling than the U. Deep-well injection of hazardous chemical waste may be a suitable method of disposal where:. Potential dangers of deep-well injection of hazardous waste include all of the following except:.
In a secure landfill for hazardous waste, an impermeable clay cap is often used to:. The most abundant components of solid waste are, in order from most abundant to least:.
If composting is an option in your area, consider establishing an organics recycling program in your facility. A good place to start is in restrooms, if paper towels are used for hand drying. Bathroom waste bins tend to contain primarily organic waste paper towels and tissues , making it unnecessary to sort waste and thus easy to capture this material for organics recycling.
Another area to find compostables is in the kitchen or your campus cafeteria. Install organics recycling containers and train kitchen staff to put food-prep waste pre-consumer food waste in these containers. You then can expand your program to capture post-consumer food waste in dining areas by educating your entire staff on where to put organic materials.
Based on the results of a waste sort, the facility reduced its daily trash generation by 55 percent, with the potential to divert 45, pounds of waste annually from the landfill. The facility now recycles three pounds of material for every pound of trash. To best understand the opportunities for waste reduction and cost savings on your campus, conduct a waste assessment.
A waste assessment involves examining what wastes are generated and how they are managed throughout your facility. Start with the following questions:. View the discussion thread. P2 Impact 5 ways to reduce waste and costs on your company's campus. If people order their own supplies, your company ends up with more than anybody needs. Establish centralized purchasing and a reuse store for office supplies Anna Arkin.
In some communities heat from municipal waste incineration is used to produce steam. This steam drives turbines that produce electric power. Recycling of heat thus reduces the cost of operation of incinerators. Generally, the wastes having inflammable characteristics are incinerated. The following types of wastes are commonly treated in hazardous waste incinerators:.
Wastes having high chlorine, sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, polychlorinated biphenyls PCB and those containing heavy metals and carcinogenic substances need special incineration technologies and precautions. A large number of municipal incinerators lack adequate air pollution control devices. Burning in many of these devices may release gases and solid particles that may harm human health, damage property and kill plants.
The flue gases from ordinary incinerators can be dangerous in the absence of pollution control devices. Furthermore, as you have read earlier, incineration sometimes becomes a costly affair. Another method of disposal of hazardous wastes involves dumping wastes at deep sea, designed to prevent contamination of groundwater.
Disposal at sea, of waste generated on land, is based on the misconceived notion that-the enoromous volume of water available for dilution, enables the seas to be used as a dump without permanent damage. However, this is an erroneous conviction. The decision to choose this method of disposal is generally based on financial considerations. The site of disposal is determined by the geographical location of the waste producer. Disposal of waste at sea is controlled by international legislation and by the national legislation required for the ratification of the international legislation.
To prevent pollution of the seas by the direct discharge of waste, the international legislation bans the dumping of extraordinarily hazardous wastes such as organic silicon compounds, halogenated organics, mercury and its compounds, cadmium, carcinogenic waste and plastics into the sea. The last of these can seriously disturb fishing and navigation. It maybe excessively expensive to dispose off certain hazardous wastes, such as radioactive nuclear wastes, in an environmentally acceptable manner at landfill still sites or incinerate them at thermal treatment plants.
These wastes are generated in all operations associated with the use of nuclear energy for national defence or peaceful purposes such as mining of radioactive ore, production of nuclear fuel, laboratory experiments and medical treatment. Underground disposal may provide an. The underground disposal of hazardous waste is acceptable only in inactive or partially active mines that meet specific geological and technical criteria.
Worldwide, only one deep-mine disposal facility is currently in operation: Salt mines are often used for radioactive waste disposal because the excellent properties of salt deposits prevent the interaction of wastes with other geological formations.
The very existence of a salt deposit is a proof that the underground site has been unaffected by water for. Salt is impermeable to liquids and gases. Due to its hygroscopic nature, salt is capable of absorbing water entering ,the formation from outside and of repairing minor fractures by re-crystallization, thus maintaining the original impermeability. This feature is frequently supplemented by impermeable upper strata consisting of wastes, usually rock, from mines or other industries.
The atmosphere in salt mines is extremely dry, so metal equipment and containers do not rust. There is no risk of methane explosions as in coal mines. Bursting of carbon dioxide gas inclusions in the salt mines may be observed during excavation of rocks but this does not pose a risk, particularly after mining operations have ceased. Thermal conductivity of salt is good.
Salt is strong, permitting the excavation of spacious, stable galleries. In addition, salt has a certain plasticity under pressure, allowing the dispersion of strain and increasing the overall stability. Thus, in principle you have learnt that there are four methods of waste disposal. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of articles published and preserved by users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge.
Before preserving your articles on this site, please read the following pages: What are the useful methods of Hazardous Waste Management? In the modern framework of hazardous waste management, a four pronged strategy has been adopted:
Start studying Chapter Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. waste handling strategy that utlizes a broad range of reduction techniques and disposal options; these include 1) promoting reuse 2) recycling 3) composting. The waste-handling strategy that utilizes a broad range of reduction techniques and disposal options is: integrated waste management Disposal of biodegradable chemical waste by dispersal is called: land application Disposal Read More "Chapter 29". The waste-handling strategy that utilizes a broad range of reduction techniques and disposal options is: a) composting b) surface impoundment national programs of source reduction c) proper disposal of household hazardous wastes d) handling problems of household, industrial, and sewage wastes all together.